Size: ca. 2.5 Mio km²
Sudan has always faced double and contrasting hazards: drought (including severe desertification) and flooding. Both are significantly exacerbated by climate change. Drought is a particular problem in the North and West, including Darfur. In the North, precipitation varies from close to zero (near the border with Egypt) to approximately 200mm around Khartoum. Both flooding and drought produce increased pressure on land availability and agricultural yields. Although there are many factors contributing to insecurity in Sudan that have little or nothing to do with the environment or natural resources, the roles of rainfall, desertification and the level of Nile waters are all acknowledged to be major contributing causes to the most pressing security issues facing the country: conflict, displacement and food insecurity. Both small-scale and large scale conflict have directly affected over 60% of the country for the last 50 years. The conflict in Darfur has been directly affected by drought and ensuing competition over land between pastoralists and agriculturalists. The war between North and South, and tribal conflicts within the South, have both been strongly affected by conflicts over benefits from Nile waters and water rights.
By investigating implications of changing availability of natural resources due to climate change for human security and violent conflict in the context of partition politics in Sudan, this case study will shed light to conditions that lead actors to engage in conflict and the role of states in providing security, two crucial and underexplored factors in the literature which CLICO will explore.