Size: ca. 1.3 Mio km²
The case studies in Niger covers the Agadez (Northern Niger) and Tillabéri (Southern Niger) regions. In the past, there used to be unwritten agreements between nomads who mainly come from the arid Agadez region and the farmers in the South of the country (Sahel Zone). The first group made use of the grass growing in the fertile lands of the second group which contributed to fertilising the land of southern farmers. Seasonal movements of population and herds were predominantly from the North to the South. More recently, repeated droughts possibly induced by climate change, combined with increased population pressure have reduced land productivity in the south. Farmers from these regions started moving northwards, using marginal lands for farming, which lead to conflicts with nomads in the North. In particular, the Tillabéri region surrounds the capital, Niamey, where there is high potential for in-migration due to the relatively numerous job opportunities. In 2005, drought conditions were exceptionally critical in Niger with a crop shortage of 224,000 tons which affected approximately 3.5 million people in 3,755 villages particularly in the Tillabéri region.
Research in this case study area will investigate the migration patterns which are induced by environmental degradation, linked in particular to the precarious water situation in the two regions, which are deemed to become worse in the future because of climate change (rainfall in the region has already decreased between 20% - 50% in the last 30 years). The focus will remain on potential conflicts but by investigating vulnerability and migration patterns linked to the water scarcity problem and will in this way help address one of CLICO's major themes which is to improve understanding of the determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity under multiple stressors.